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SMS languagetextese or texting language [1] is the abbreviated language and slang commonly used with mobile phone text messaging, or other Internet -based communication such as email and instant messaging. Once it became popular it took on a life of its own and was often used outside to write formal emails or letters.

SMS language is similar to that used by those sending telegraphs that charged by the word. It seeks to use the fewest number of letters to produce ultra-concise words and sentiments [2] in dealing with space, time and cost constraints of text messaging.

This follows from how early SMS permitted only characters and some carriers charge messages by the number of characters sent. It also shares some of these characteristics with Internet slang and Telex speak following from how its evolution is rather symbiotic to the evolution of use of shorthand in Internet chat rooms.

Likewise, dating abbreviations, such a change sought to accommodate the small number of characters allowed per message, and to increase convenience for the time-consuming and often small keyboards on mobile phones. In addition, similarly elliptical styles of writing can be traced to the days of telegraphese years back, where telegraph operators were reported to use abbreviations similar to those used in modern text when chatting amongst themselves in between sending of official messages, dating abbreviations.

Dating abbreviations, the invention of mobile phone messaging is considered to be the source for the invention of SMS language. In general, SMS language thus permits the sender to type less and communicate more quickly than one could without such shortcuts. One example is the use of "tomoz" instead of "tomorrow". Nevertheless, there are no standard rules for the creation and use of SMS languages. Any word may be shortened for example, "text" to "txt". Words can also be combined with numbers to make them shorter for example, "later" to "l8r"dating abbreviations, using the numeral "8" for its homophonic quality.

Some may view SMS language to be a nascent dialect of the English language[2] that is a dialect strongly if not completely derivative of the English language. This may not be so. Such generalization may have risen from the fact that mobile phones had only been able to support a limited number of default languages in the early stages of its conception and distribution. A mobile operating system OS such as Symbian and language packs enable the linguistic localization of products that are equipped with such interfaces, where the current Symbian release Symbian Belle supports the scripts and orthographies of over 48 languages and dialects, though such provisions are by no means fully comprehensive as to the languages used by users all over the world.

Researcher Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza [8] further observes that mobile phone producers offer support "of local language of the country" within which their phone sets are to be distributed.

Nevertheless, various factors contribute as additional constraints to the use of non-English languages and scripts in SMS.

This motivates the anglicization of such languages, especially those using non- Latin orthographies i. As such, on top of the measures taken to minimize space, time and cost constraints in SMS language, further constraints upon the varied nature and characteristics of languages worldwide add to the distinct properties and style of SMS language s. The primary motivation for the creation and use of SMS language was to convey a comprehensible message using the fewest number of characters possible.

This was for two reasons; one, telecommunication companies limited the number of characters per SMS, and also charged the user per SMS sent. To keep costs down, users had to find a way of being concise while still communicating the desired message. Two, typing on a phone is normally slower than with a keyboard, and capitalization is even slower.

As a result, punctuation, grammar, and capitalization are largely ignored. In many countries, people now have access to unlimited text options in their monthly plan, although this varies widely from country to country, and operator to operator.

However, screens are still small and the input problem persists, so SMS language is still widely used for brevity. Although they are by no means exhaustive, some of these marked properties involve the use of:.

There are many examples of words or phrases that share the same abbreviations e. For words that have no common abbreviation, users most commonly remove the vowels from a word, and the reader is required to interpret a string of consonants by re-adding the vowels e. Omission of words, especially function words e. Recipients may have to interpret the abbreviated words depending on the context in which they are being used. For instance, should someone use ttyl, lol they may probably mean talk to you later, lots of love as opposed to talk to you later, laugh out loud.

In another instance, if someone were to use omg, lol they may perhaps mean oh my god, laugh out loud as opposed to oh my god, lots of love. Therefore, co-textual references dating abbreviations context are crucial when interpreting textese, and it is precisely this shortfall that critics cite as a reason not to use it although the English language in general, like many other languageshas many words that have different meanings in different contexts.

SMS language does not always obey or follow standard grammarand additionally the words used are not usually found in standard dictionaries or recognized by language academies. Reactive tokens include phrases or words like "yeah I know", which signifies a reaction to a previous message. In SMS language, however, the difference is that many words are shortened unlike in spoken speech. Some tokens of the SMS language can be likened to a rebususing pictures and single letters or numbers to represent whole words e.

The dialect has a few hieroglyphs codes comprehensible to initiates and a range of face symbols. Prosodic features in SMS language aim to provide added semantic and syntactic information and context from which recipients can use to deduce a more contextually relevant and accurate interpretation.

These may aim to convey the textual equivalent of verbal prosodic features such as facial expression and tone of voice [16] [17] Indeed, even though SMS language exists in the format of written text, it closely resembles normal speech in that it dating abbreviations not have a complicated structure and that its meaning is greatly contextualised.

In the case of capitalization in SMS language, there are three scenarios: Most SMS messages have done away with capitalization. Use of capitalizations on the first word of a message may in fact, not be intentional, and may likely be due to the default capitalization setting of devices.

Capitalization too may encode prosodic elements, where copious use may signify the textual equivalent of raised voice to indicate heightened emotion. Just as body language and facial expressions can alter how speech is perceived, emoji and emoticons can alter the meaning of a text message, the difference being that the real tone of the SMS sender is less easily discerned merely by the emoticon.

Using a smiling face can be perceived as being sarcastic rather than happy, thus the reader has to decide which it is by looking at the whole message. Use of punctuation and capitalization to form emoticons distracts from the more traditional function of such features and symbols. Nevertheless, uses do differ across individuals and cultures. Dating abbreviations example, overpunctuation may simply be used to communicate paralinguistic aspects of communication without the need to create an emotion from it like so: While vowels and punctuation of words in SMS language are generally omitted, David Crystal observes that apostrophes occur unusually frequently.

He cites an American study of messages, where occurrence of apostrophes in SMS language is approximately 35 percent. The use of apostrophes cannot be totally attributed to users attempting to disambiguate words that might otherwise be misunderstood without it. There are not that many cases in English where leaving out the apostrophe causes misunderstanding of the message.

For example, "we're" without the apostrophe could be misread as "were". Even so, these are mostly understood correctly despite being ambiguous, as readers can rely on other cues such as part of sentence and context where the word appears to decide what the word should be. For many other words like "Im" and "Shes", there is no ambiguity. Since it is not imperative that users use apostrophes to ensure that their message is understood accurately, this phenomenon may in part be attributed to texters wanting to maintain clarity so that the message can be more easily understood in a shorter amount of time.

Users may also use spellings that reflect their illocutionary force and intention rather than using the standard spelling. For example, the use of "haha" to signify "standard" laughter, dating abbreviations, and "muahaha" to encode perhaps more raucous or evil sound of laughter.

In this, regional variations in spelling can also be observed. As such, SMS language, with its intergroup variations, also serves as an identity marker.

SMS language has yet to be accepted as a conventional and stable form, dialect and language. As a result, as much as it is also a consequencenotable lexicographical efforts and publications e. By constantly using this ungrammatical form of texting so frequently, it has become a part of their "normal language" [ citation needed ].

Vodacom provides lists of abbreviations and acronyms with their meanings in its website. Such websites usually have an alphabetical list of "words" used in SMS language, together with their intended meanings. Entire sounds within words would often be replaced by a letter or digit that would produce down to earth dating profile similar sound when read by itself:. According to research done by Dr. Nenagh Kemp of University of Tasmaniathe evolution of "textese" is inherently coupled to a strong grasp of grammar and phonetics.

David Crystal has countered the claims that SMS has a deleterious effect on language with numerous scholarly studies. The findings are summarized in his book Txtng: In his book, Crystal argues that:.

He further observes that this is by no means a cause for bad spelling, where in fact, texting may lead to an improvement in the literacy of the user, dating abbreviations. There are others who feel that the claims of SMS language being detrimental to English language proficiency are overrated. A study of the written work of students by Freudenberg found that the actual amount of use of SMS language found in the written work was not very significant.

Some features of SMS language such as the use of emoticons was not observed in any of the written work by the students. Of all the errors found, quite a substantial amount cannot be attributed to use of SMS language.

These included errors that have already appeared even before the advent of SMS language. There are also views that SMS language has little or no effect on grammar. With proper instruction, students should be able to distinguish between slang, SMS language and correct English and use them in their appropriate contexts. According to a study, though SMS language is faster to write, more time is needed to read it compared to conventional English. Although various other research supports the use of SMS language, the popular notion that text messaging is damaging dating abbreviations the linguistic development of young people persists and many view it as a corruption of the standard form of language.

Welsh journalist and television reporter John Humphrys has criticized SMS language as "wrecking our language". The author cites ambiguity as one problem posed, illustrating with examples such as "lol", which may either be interpreted to mean "laughing out loud", "lots of love", and "little old lady" depending on the context in which it is being used. Ambiguous words and statements have always been present within languages.

In English for example, the word "duck" can have more than one meaning. It could be referring to either the bird or the action, and such words are usually disambiguated by looking at the context in which it was written. The proliferation of SMS language has been criticized for causing the deterioration of English language proficiency and its rich heritage.

Opponents of SMS language feel that it undermines the properties of the English language that have lasted throughout its long history. Furthermore, words within the SMS dating abbreviations that are very similar to their English-language counterparts can be confused by young users as the actual English spelling and can therefore increase the prevalence of spelling mistakes.

Humphrys describes emoticons and textese as "irritating" and essentially lazy behavior, and surmises that "sloppy" habits gained while using textese will result in students' growing ignorance of proper grammar and punctuation. Use of SMS language in schools tended to be seen as negative effects.

SMS language is thus thought to be the "secret code of the youth" by some. In recent years, advertisements have been increasingly influenced by SMS language.

The longer the message in the advertisement, the less impression it will leave.

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The slash is an oblique slanting line punctuation mark. Once used to mark periods and commas , the slash is now most often used to represent exclusive or inclusive or , division and fractions , and as a date separator. Unicode calls it a solidus , and it is sometimes called stroke in British English , and it has several other historical or technical names.

Slashes may be found in early writing as a variant form of dashes , vertical strokes , etc. The present use of a slash distinguished from such other marks derives from the medieval European virgule Latin: In the 18th century, the mark was generally known in English as the " oblique ". In the 19th and early 20th century, it was also widely known as the " shilling mark " or " solidus ", from its use as the currency sign for the shilling. Clarifying terms such as " forward slash " have been coined owing to widespread use of Microsoft 's DOS and Windows operating systems , which use the backslash extensively.

The slash is commonly used in many languages as a shorter substitute for the conjunction "or", typically with the sense of exclusive or e. Such slashes may be used to avoid taking a position in naming disputes.

In particular, since the late 20th century, the slash is used to permit more gender-neutral language in place of the traditional masculine or plural gender neutrals. Most other Indo-European languages include more far-reaching use of grammatical gender.

In these, the separate gendered desinences grammatical suffices of the words may be given divided by slashes or set off with parentheses. This does not always work smoothly, however: The slash is also used as a shorter substitute for the conjunction "and" or inclusive or i.

The slash, as a form of inclusive or , is also used to punctuate the stages of a route e. The word "slash" is also developing as a way to introduce topic shifts or follow-up statements. Slash can we go there tomorrow? Slash I just chubbed on oatmeal raisin cookies at north quad and i miss you. Fractions, unlike inline division, are often given using smaller numbers, superscript , and subscript e. Such formatting developed as a way to write the horizontal fraction bar on a single line of text.

It is first attested in England and Mexico in the 18th century. The separate encoding of the Unicode fraction slash is intended to permit automatic formatting of the preceding and succeeding digits by glyph substitution with numerator and denominator glyphs e.

By lack of support, some authors still use Unicode subscripts and superscripts to compose fractions, the more as in many popular fonts, these characters are repurposed as numerators and denominators. This use developed from the fraction slash in the late 18th or early 19th century. In group theory , the slash is used to mark quotient groups. This is read " G mod N ", where "mod" is short for " modulo ". The mod n is denoted by a coefficient before the second Zahlen symbol. The slash, sometimes distinguished as " forward slash ", is used in computing in a number of ways, primarily as a separator among levels in a given hierarchy, for example in the path of a filesystem.

The slash is used as the path component separator in many computer operating systems e. In Unix and Unix-like systems, such as macOS and Linux , the slash is also used for the volume root directory e. The slash is used in a similar fashion in internet URLs e. The slash in an IP address e. The slash is used as a division operator in most programming languages. The double slash is used by Rexx as a modulo operator , and Python starting in version 2.

In Perl 6 the double slash is used as a "defined-or" alternative to. Notice that no space is required between the command and the switch; this was responsible for the choice to use backslashes as the path separator since one would otherwise be unable to run a program in a different directory.

Slashes are used as the standard delimiters for regular expressions , although other characters can be used instead. IRC and many in-game chat clients use the slash to mark commands, such as joining and leaving a chat room or sending private messages. In Minecraft ' s chat function, the slash is used for executing console and plugin commands.

In Second Life ' s chat function, the slash is used to select the "communications channel", allowing users to direct commands to virtual objects "listening" on different channels. The Gedcom standard for exchanging computerized genealogical data uses slashes to delimit surnames.

Slashes around surnames are also used in Personal Ancestral File. The slash as the " shilling mark " or " solidus " [23] was the currency sign of the shilling , a former coin of the United Kingdom and its former colonies.

The slash is used in currency exchange rate notation to express exchange rates , the ratio of the first currency in terms of the second. This value may then be multiplied by any number of euros to find its value in dollars. Slashes are a common calendar date separator [10] used across many countries and by some standards such as the Common Log Format used by web servers. If only two elements are present, they typically denote a day and month in some order.

Owing to the ambiguity across cultures, the practice of using only two elements to denote a date is sometimes proscribed. Because of the world's many varying conventional date and time formats , ISO advocates the use of a Year-Month-Day system separated by hyphens e. In the ISO system, slashes represent date ranges: This formal notation is sometimes emended to use double hyphens instead as to permit its use in file names.

In English, a range marked by a slash often has a separate meaning from one marked by a dash or hyphen. The usage was particularly common in British English during World War II , where such slash dates were used for night-bombing air raids. It is also used by some police forces in the United States. The slash is used in numbering to note totals. Slashes are also sometimes used to mark ranges in numbers that already include hyphens or dashes.

One example is the ISO treatment of dating. Another is the US Air Force 's treatment of aircraft serial numbers, which are normally written to note the fiscal year and aircraft number. For example, "" notes the thousandth aircraft ordered in fiscal year To indicate the next fifty subsequent aircraft, a slash is used in place of a hyphen or dash: A pair of slashes as " slants " are used in the transcription of speech to enclose pronunciations i.

In sociolinguistics , a double or triple slash may also be used in the transcription of a traditional sociolinguistic interview or in other type of linguistic elicitation to represent simultaneous speech, interruptions, and certain types of speech disfluencies.

The slash as a " virgule " offset by spaces to either side is used to mark line breaks when transcribing text from a multi-line format into a single-line one.

For example, when quoting Hamlet 's soliloquy. To be, or not to be , that is the question: The virgule may be thinner than a standard slash when typeset. In computing contexts, it may be necessary to use a non-breaking space before the virgule to prevent it from being widowed on the next line. The slash has become standard in several other abbreviations as well. In the US government , the names of offices within various departments are abbreviated using slashes, starting with the larger office and following with its subdivisions.

The slash or vertical bar as a " separatrix " is used in proofreading to mark the end of margin notes [n 2] or to separate margin notes from one another. The slash is used in fan fiction to mark the romantic pairing a piece will focus upon e. The genre as a whole is now known as slash fiction. Because it is more generally associated with homosexual male relationships, lesbian slash fiction is sometimes distinguished as femslash. The slash is used under the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules to separate the title of a work from its statement of responsibility i.

Like a line break , this slash is surrounded by a single space on either side. The format is used in both card catalogs and online records. The slash is sometimes used as an abbreviation for building numbers.

For example, in some contexts, [ where? In the United States , however, such an address refers to the first division of Apartment 8 and is simply a variant of Apartment 8A or 8-A. The slash is used in various scansion notations for representing the metrical pattern of a line of verse, typically to indicate a stressed syllable. Slashes are used in musical notation as an alternative to writing out specific notes where it is easier to read than traditional notation or where the player can improvise.

They are commonly used to indicate chords either in place of or in combination with traditional notation and for drummers as an indication to continue with the previously indicated style. A slash is used to mark a spare knocking down all ten pins in two throws when scoring ten-pin and duckpin bowling. In online messaging, a slash might be used to imitate the formatting of a chat command e. A pair of slashes is sometimes used as a way to mark italic text , where no special formatting is available e.

A single slash is sometimes used as a way of expressing a check mark , with the meaning "OK", "got it", "done", or "thanks". In Japan, a set of multiple slashes typically three: These slashes are usually placed at the end of a statement. A slash is usually written without spacing on either side when it connects single words, letters, or symbols.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For technical reasons , ": For the keyboard symbol, see List of emoticons. For the website, see Slashdot. Chinese Hebrew Japanese Korean. Gender neutrality in languages with grammatical gender. Oxford University Press, The Oxford Style Guide , Oxford: Oxford University Press, , archived from the original on 9 February , retrieved 18 February

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Laird Web site policies Menu Controversy over the use of the "CE/BCE" and "AD/BC" dating notation. Sponsored link. Overview: Unfortunately, "CE" has two unrelated meanings. SMS language, textese or texting language is the abbreviated language and slang commonly used with mobile phone text messaging, or other Internet-based communication such as email and instant messaging.